Class Hydrology

  • Presentation


    It is part of the set of disciplines that intend to provide students with skills on water resources (superficial and groundwaters), allowing to understand the bases of superficial (Hydrology) and groundwaters resources (Hydrogeology), in the context of the hydrological cycle.

    Understand the dynamic and chemical characteristics of this resource in the hydrological cycle, at the surface and in depth.

    In the discipline, the importance of using a technical language in the hydrological and hydrogeological aspects is emphasized and the importance of connection to other areas is emphasized.

    It is a discipline that allows to understand the importance of surface and underground water resources, as well as their characteristics in hydrodynamic and hydrochemical terms, relating to the sustainable management of this resource and the risks of contamination. Fundamental Curricular Unit (UC), which interconnects with the disciplines of Chemistry, General and Applied Geology and Hydraulics.

  • Code


  • Syllabus



    Distribution and importance of water resources.

    The hydrological cycle. Hydrological balances.

    The watershed.


    Evaporation / evapotranspiration.

    Surface runoff processes and factors. Assessment of flood hydrographs and peak flow rates.

    Infiltration and water circulation in porous geological substrates: physical properties, hydrogeological formations. Application of Bernoulli's theorem, Darcy's law and general groundwater flow equation in porous medium.

    Types of groundwater reservoirs.

    Groundwater F-Q characteristics, graphical representation of analyzes.

    Quality standards (legislation).



    Exercises - Precipitation, ETP, runoff / hydrological balances. Darcy's law and groundwater runoff. water borehole: interpretation of pumping tests, observation of drawdowns/hydraulic characteristics of hydrogeological formations. Interpretation / graphical representation of F-Q (hydrochemistry).

  • Objectives


    The main objective of the course is to provide general training in superficial (Hydrology) and groundwaters resources (Hydrogeology), in the context of the hydrological cycle and for students understand fundamental techniques for the study of surface and underground hydrology.

    Acquire knowledge and technical language in the hydrological and hydrogeological aspects.

    Understand the concept of hydrological balance and watershed.

    Understand the concepts and processes associated with the hydrological cycle (precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff, underground reserves, underground flows, abstractions, contamination, protection perimeters, hydrochemistry, ...).

    Develop independence skills in the search for information.

    Develop teamwork skills.

  • Teaching methodologies and assessment

    Teaching methodologies and assessment

    The methodology used is the active method, placing the student as the centre of the learning process. Classes use a combined expository/interrogative method using active learning methodologies: brainstorming, role play, etc. Case study analysis is included in the topics covered, encouraging peer discussion and problem solving. This process will allow students to develop critical thinking, increasing their problem-solving capacity. "Flipped classroom", "Peer teaching" and "Peer feedback" methodologies may be used.

    If there is an opportunity, a technical outing will be organised to enable non-formal learning.

  • References


    Custodio, E.; Llamas, M.R. (1976). Hidrología Subterránea. Tomo I e II. OMEGA, Barcelona.

    Fetter, C.W. (1994). Applied Hydrogeology, Third Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

    Hipólito, J.R.; Vaz, A.C. (2014). Hidrologia e recursos hídricos.  Coleção Ensino da Ciência e da Tecnologia. IST Press.

    Jones, J.A.A. (1997). Global Hydrology: Processes, Resources and Environmental Management. Addison Wesley Longman Limited.

    Lencastre, A.; Franco, F.M. (2010). Lições de Hidrologia.  3.ª ed. Fund. Armando Lencastre.

    Linsley, M.K.; Paulhus, J. (1982). Hydrology for Engineers, McGraw-Hill.

    Serviço Cartográfico do Exército (1986) ¿ Manual de Leitura de Cartas. 239 p.

    Material de apoio da disciplina de Hidrologia (Moodle)

    Páginas da internet. Ex: GeoPortal (LNEG), APA, USEPA,

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